Final accounts are all of the financial statement for a business or company at the end of the fiscal or calendar year, on whichever the business calendar the company operates. The statements for the final accounts show the gross profit and net income of the company. A number of accounts are included, such as the profit and loss statement for the business, the balance sheet, and the trading account.
The profit and loss statement tracks all of the income that comes into the company, as well as the expenses that the company pays out. The profit and loss statement covers a specific period — typically the fiscal year, but it can also cover the calendar year. It shows how revenue becomes net income, and whether or not the company made money for the year. While the company tracks these figures throughout the year, the final accounts include the statement for the cumulative fiscal or calendar year.
The balance sheet is another one of the business financial statements that are prepared as part of the final accounts process when the year closes out. The balance sheet provides a quick look at how the company is doing at that specific moment in time, at the end of the year. In addition to assets and liabilities, a balance sheet also includes information on shareholder equity.
Trading accounts cover profits and losses incurred from trading securities. Many companies invest in stocks, bonds, mutual funds and other types of investment funds. The final accounts for the trading account show the amount of gain or loss from these investments at the end of the year that the company runs on.
Final accounts and the statements that make up these accounts accounts typically help companies to prepare their various tax returns. If the company accountant prepares the tax statements, then the accountant prepares these statements for his or her own use. If the company hires an outside accountant or accounting firm, then the statements for the final accounts are handed over to the third party, so they have the information they need to prepare the company's tax returns and any of tax paperwork that is required.