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What Are the Different Types of Financial Instruments?

Financial instruments are the lifeblood of the global economy, ranging from simple stocks and bonds to complex derivatives. They enable investment, risk management, and wealth creation. Stocks offer ownership in a company, while bonds are loans that pay interest. Derivatives, like options and futures, derive value from underlying assets. What type of financial instrument aligns with your investment goals? Continue reading to find out.
Geri Terzo
Geri Terzo

Financial instruments are securities that both large and small investors can use to gain exposure to the financial markets. Some of these securities are common, such as equity or stock investments, as well as bonds or debt securities. Small investors and institutional investors, including mutual funds, frequently buy and sell stocks and bonds. More complex financial instruments, including derivative contracts, such as futures and options, are often used by professional money managers, including hedge funds.

Stocks and bonds are the most traditional types of financial instruments, although there are sophisticated ways to invest in these securities. When an investor purchases stock, he or she is obtaining an equity stake in that corporate entity that entitles him or her to share in profits and vote on some key events. Buying equity also exposes an investor to risk in that there is little recourse if a stock loses value.

Stocks are a common form of financial instrument.
Stocks are a common form of financial instrument.

Bonds are a type of debt, and this category represents another type of financial instrument. Companies, local governments, and federal governments might issue bonds as a means to raise money in the capital markets. Investors who buy bonds are lending the issuer money in exchange for receiving ongoing interest payments in addition to a final payment worth the principal amount of the original investment when the bond reaches maturity. Bonds are often considered a safe haven for investing because traditional bonds are relatively secure. There are more risky bonds, known as high yield investments, that pay a higher interest rate but that have a greater risk of default versus a more conservative debt instrument, such as an investment-grade bond.

Hedge funds are designed to generate returns that exceed those of the broader markets.
Hedge funds are designed to generate returns that exceed those of the broader markets.

Futures and options are among the most sophisticated and potentially risky financial instruments, and they are often used by professional money managers. A futures contract is an agreement to purchase or sell, also known as trade, some underlying product such as gold, crude oil, or agricultural items at a future date and at a preset price. Options are contracts that give traders an option to buy other financial instruments, including stocks, at a predetermined price within a given time frame.

Alone, derivatives hold no value. The value of these financial instruments is determined by the underlying security or asset, such as a stock or natural resource. Hedge funds, which are lightly regulated investment funds run by professionals and designed to generate returns that exceed the broader markets, often use derivatives trading to speculate on an anticipated price movement or to hedge, or protect, another trading position.

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Discussion Comments


@MrsWinslow - Take a deep breath! And do not just put your money in a savings account!

Your level of risk should be determined by your investment timeframe. If your kids are teenagers, then you'll want to invest your money very safely - savings account or maybe a CD (certificate of deposit). But if they're still in diapers, stocks are the way to go with at least a chunk of your money - you would have time to recoup any losses, and over a long time, the stock market generally performs better than anything else. The same logic applies to your retirement.

Another major consideration is tax benefits. Anyone who doesn't have too high an income can open an IRA, and your work may offer a 401(K) or something similar. For the kids' college, many states have 529 plans that offer tax-reduced savings.

How to get started? You need a financial planner. You can find a fee-only planner; this is one that you pay for his time, but he won't try to sell you anything. S/he can inform you about financial instruments and markets and help you make sensible decisions for your situation.


My husband and I are in the early stages of learning what are different financial instruments and thinking about how we want to invest for our retirement, our children's college educations, etc. There's so much out there! And we don't want to lose our money. I'm starting to think we should just put the money in savings account and be done with it. How do we get started?

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    • Stocks are a common form of financial instrument.
      By: Dana S. Rothstein
      Stocks are a common form of financial instrument.
    • Hedge funds are designed to generate returns that exceed those of the broader markets.
      By: dundersztyc
      Hedge funds are designed to generate returns that exceed those of the broader markets.