Human capital formation is the process of transforming the people in a country into workers who are capable of producing goods and services. During this process, relatively unskilled individuals are given the tools they need to contribute to the economy. It is critical to the long-term economic growth of a country, and provides the same benefits as new technologies or more efficient industrial equipment. While this process takes time, it often results in a greater standard of living for the people within a country in just a few generations, or even sooner. This process can be achieved through the use of public health policies, education or training opportunities.
Public health policies are key to effective human capital formation. Access to health care and proper nutrition increases life expectancy and helps people become more effective in the workplace. As people live longer, society benefits from their experience and skill, which allows them to perform their jobs more efficiently than those who are new to the workplace.
Education is also critical to human capital formation. Educated people possess more skills and are able to perform their jobs more effectively. They are also better suited to more complex jobs, which are often associated with higher rates of pay and greater economic benefits. Countries can invest in public schools as well as adult education to enjoy these benefits. Trade schools also help in the formation of human capital, as do respected colleges and universities.
In addition to making education more readily available, countries can also encourage economic growth by enacting mandatory attendance laws. For example, children in the United States are generally required by law to attend school through a certain age. Investing in teachers can also help boost education within a nation.
Ethical and morality issues can also impact human capital formation. Many underdeveloped countries experience a phenomenon known as brain drain, during which educated or skilled workers emigrate for better opportunities. While some leave for financial reasons, others emigrate due to cultural or political reasons. Brain drain is particularly common in countries that restrict personal freedom, or those with a culture of discrimination against certain groups.
Countries that enact policies aimed at the effective development of human capital often find that it takes time to realize results. Once results begin to show, they tend to be cumulative, however. That is, each generation enjoys greater results than the one before, as the compound effects of these polices take effect.